May 6, 2021

Insider Release

Geopolitical Blog

Emerging Trends in Electric Vehicles: Future Of Mobility In Green Era

Since the introduction of automotive in the late1800s, the world has seen constant innovations in the industry. With each new line, there are new ideas and concepts, introduced to help make our lives easier. Also, the world after the fourth industrial revolution witnessed strive towards environment-friendly policies and innovation, which influenced the transportation sector as well. At present, these concepts are the key to the future of mobility. These ideas catalyzed the transition from bio fuel-based vehicle production to Electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid vehicles.

Electric vehicles
Electric vehicles – Credit: CHUTTERSNAP

The Internal Combustion (IC) engine dominated the industry for a very long period. From the imperial era onwards, fossil fuel was a vital part of the automotive industries and every revolution in it. Even though Robert Anderson developed the world’s first crude electric vehicle in 1832, the fuel-based IC engines continued to dominate the mobility sector. But, recently, in the mid-1990s, General Motors introduced the first modern-age electric cars on a mass scale, and it gained huge popularity from the advocates of green development. Currently, the future of the automotive market seems to have a bend towards Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (EVs). Here, the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. All car powertrains drive a drive shaft that turns the drive wheels of the car. Because an internal combustion engine delivers energy best only over a small range of torque and speed, the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to a switchable gear train that matches the needed torque at the wheels to the torque that can be delivered by the engine. Hybrid and EV technologies are becoming increasingly important in satisfying this vast array of these conflicting requirements across different regions, and hybrids remain at the core of the technology portfolio as well as companies’ compliance strategy to achieve the ambiguous goal of, high energy efficiency and low greenhouse gas GHG emission.

Brief history of the alternative to fossil fuel

It was during the first oil shock in 1973, the world nations, especially the West started to think about an alternative for the fossil fuel industry. New studies and policies were initiated in the US under the Nixon administration, which was followed by several European countries. Transportation and manufacturing industries were always remarked by climate advocates due to their huge carbon emissions. The oil shock created a risk for automakers which was highly dependent on these fuels. The idea of Hybrid and electric technology gained attention during this period, also, the automakers like Ford and Mazda; GM and Suzuki, Isuzu, Toyota, Fiat, and Daewoo; Chrysler and Mitsubishi; Daimler and Smart started to establish tie-ups to produce new-generation vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. The US for the first time made Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards compulsory. Earlier in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established fuel economy and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions standards for passenger cars and light trucks through the 2025 model year.

Oil extraction
Oil extraction – Credit: Zbynek Burival

The mission was that the new vehicle fleet must meet a Green House Gas (GHG) standard of 250 grams of CO2 per mile, equivalent to a Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard of 35.5 miles per gallon; by 2025 cars and light trucks are required to yield a combined 54.5 mpg. While overall compliance is based on a fleet average, each vehicle has a fuel economy/ Green House Gas (GHG) target based on its footprint. Hybrid and Electric vehicles play a major role in the US Mobility goal of reduction of Green House Gas (GHG). Later on, many Western countries like Germany, the UK, France, and many others joined the league of Green Mobility.

Major automobile giants like BMW, General Motors, Toyota, Tesla Inc, and others are investing hugely in R&D for these innovations. Energy analysts were a little skeptical about the acceptance of this transition in developing economies, unlike the developed Western market. The main reason was lack of awareness of customers and lack of infrastructure. However, the introduction of new generation cars like TATA’s Nexon, Maruthi’s Sias, MG’s Hector, and others show the changing trends in the demand-supply chain in these markets as well. To emphasize that, not just cars but other automotive giants like Hero Motor, Yadea Group, and others are also lined up along with Xnri, Dongguan Tailing in EV transition. Altogether, the transition to renewable transportation is on a brighter track in the global market.

The impact of the global pandemic on the oil Industry

The Covid-19 pandemic had hit the nerves of the oil industry, and the political tension between the OPEC and OPEC+ parties further deteriorated the sector. This played as a catalyst to the renewable energy sector in all aspects. Concerning the mobility sector, when the oil price war intensified more EV and hybrid vehicles were accepted by the consumers, even in the Middle Eastern oil lands. MAPNA and Saipa’s collaboration in Iran for example. The EV in near future will be a catalyst to get big oil markets into the green sector in the mobility industry.

The most important development in the sector is the introduction of robotic programming and Internet of Things (IoT). The market has accepted the auto-pilot and auto-braking systems. This helped the vehicle advancement in the automobile industry. This technological innovation paved the way for more research and developments in the field. Research is still ongoing to enhance the battery capacity, reducing the weight of the engine, and, on new materials like piezoelectric to intensify the stability of these new-generation vehicles.

However, it is important to look into the current challenges in the sector, most importantly, issues with battery manufacture, lack of charging spots, and most importantly cost reduction strategies. As of now only a few companies like Tesla have developed supercharging technology.

Consequently, it’s very important to work on the socio-economic and political aspects of the transportation sector along with the innovation policies. The ultimate downfall of fuel-based vehicle manufacturing might not be possible in near future. Many countries like Poland, Turkey, and many others are still depended more on fuel-based vehicles. On the other side, countries all over the world began to restructure their mobility policies towards a green transportation era. The long-term future of automation will be ‘transportation with more efficiency and less expense’ in a personalized and eco-friendly manner. This concept will induce more strength to electric and hybrid vehicles in the global market. More companies will come into the field in both Western and Eastern markets for creating a cooler, cleaner, and secure future.

SHILPA.P.M. 

for Insider Release

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INSIDER RELEASE is an informative blog where various topics are discussed. It is emphasized that the ideas and concepts, although based on research from official sources, are the result of free evaluations by the writers. The BLOG, in full compliance with the principles of information and freedom, is not classified as a press site.

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